Feeds:
Entradas
Comentarios

Archive for the ‘Theology Articles’ Category

Some Observations

 By Br. John Martin Sahajananda

It’s this writer’s contention that prophetic monotheism reduces us to mere creatures of God, and thus, closes the door to our realizing ourselves as sons or daughters of God and as being essentially one with God. The theory of creation out of nothing isn’t a very liberating theory as it seems to disallow the spiritual evolution of human consciousness.

Shankara opened to us the possibility of realizing ourselves as being one with God. He focused on our divinity, but this was done at the cost of discounting our humanity. Human existence and relationships seem to have had little or no significance in the light of his teachings.

Ramanuja tried to correct this extreme position and give some meaning and purpose to creation and human relationships. He accorded us the dignity of being divine manifestations and of having divine kinship, but it was done at the cost of denying our oneness with God … the All.

Madhva tried to bring God to the level of human beings with all their characteristics and limitations, but it was done at the cost of denying our essential divinity and thus our innate kinship with God.

The position of Shankara on the nature of the world is very ambiguous. If he really meant that the manifest universe is an illusion, then it could be said that we live a purposeless existence. If he meant that the material world, in the sense of names and forms, is not eternal then there is some meaning to the world and human existence. The names and forms aren’t eternal, but what is within the names and forms is eternal. In that sense the world is also divine in its essence just as human beings are essentially one with the divine in their essence.

Shankara gave some meaning and purpose to the world at the functional level which he called vyavaharika. Only in the ultimate level, paramarthika, is the world seen to be illusory. This position doesn’t give any positive role to the universe and human beings in the world of time and space. The entire focus seems to be on realizing our divinity and then everything comes to an end.

Ramanuja holds that Brahman is the material cause of the universe and human souls. In that sense they’re essentially one with Brahman though functionally they may be different like water and ice. If this is so, what then would prevent us from being merged with Brahman, just as melting ice is finally merged with the water in which it floats? It seems that there’s some contradiction in his proposition.

Madhva holds that creation is completely different from God. He also holds that the manifest world has no beginning as if it also is eternal. How can there be two eternal realities? Does this imply that there are two ‘Gods’?

These three Hindu monotheistic systems seem to have something to integrate just as the prophetic monotheistic religions need to open themselves to the higher divine-human relationship. There have been many great Hindu mystics, like Sri Ramakrishna, his disciple, Swami Vivekananda, and Swami Shivananda, who’ve tried to integrate these three systems. So also there’ve been many mystics in the prophetic religions who opened human consciousness to the higher level of divine-human relationship even though they had to face many difficulties.

Br. John Martin Sahajananda

Continued next week

.

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

Dvaita — Duality

 By Br. John Martin Sahajananda

The third position in the Hindu system we’re considering is called Dvaita, a system of duality, proposed by one, Madhva, in 12th century after Jesus. He disagreed with both Shankara and Ramanuja regarding the nature of God, creation and human souls and proposed dualism. Madhva would agree with Sankara and Ramanuja that God alone is eternal (sathyam).

But, according to his teaching, God is Brahman and Brahman is Vishnu and his other incarnations. The universe is essentially different form God. The material world is not an illusion (Shankara). It isn’t the manifestation of God (Ramanuja). It isn’t created by God. The universe, he taught, was there from the beginning, as if it is eternal, though essentially different from God.

Human beings, Madhva taught, are essentially different from God. There’s a gulf between God, the world and humankind. The immeasurable power of Lord Vishnu is seen as the efficient cause of the universe and the primordial matter or prakrti is the material cause of the universe. God is personal and has many qualities, saguna. The human soul is essentially different from God. This position keeps human beings somewhat distant from God and strengthens the relationship between them.

Madhva proposed the path of devotion, bhakthi marga, and good works, karma marga. One needs to surrender to God through devotion and do good works. It’s the Lord who performs actions — energizing the soul from within — awarding the results to the soul, but he, the Lord, isn’t touched by it.

According to Madhva, we are more or less creatures of God (though he may not like to use the word ‘creatures’, in the sense of being created out of nothing). We are essentially different from him and remain so after this life. We are urged to come closer to God through devotion, but we can never merge with him. Liberation (bliss) is awarded to us according to our actions at the end of our spiritual practice, which would be after our death.

These three systems believe that there’s only one God, one eternal Reality. In that sense they are monotheistic religions. But they don’t believe that this one Reality is a creator. This is the main difference between prophetic monotheism and Hindu monotheism. Many think that Hinduism is polytheistic. In practice it looks like that, but Hinduism teaches that there’s only one God and different gods are either various manifestations of that one God or like angels in the prophetic monotheistic systems.

It’s very interesting to note how the Vedic tradition reached its climax in the Upanishads, in the 5th century before Jesus, when it was realized that human consciousness is identical with the divine, and in the 12th century after Jesus, it came down to the dualistic understanding in Madhva, where an essential difference between God and humankind is affirmed.

We can now see that there are three important concepts of a human being: essentially one with God, as per the Advaita of Shankara; manifestation of God as per the Visista Advaita of Ramanuja; and essentially different from God, as per Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Dvaita system of Hinduism. What’s common to them all is the conviction that there’s only one God. In that sense they’re all monotheistic. The difference is in the way we relate with or to that one God.

Br. John Martin Sahajananda

 

Continued next week

 

.

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

Bhagavad-Guita and the Koran

Gandhi said: «The Bhagavad-Guita –one of the sacred books of the Hindus- is not only my Bible or my Koran. It is more than that; it is my mother. My mother died a long time ago, but this eternal mother has taken his position. Each time I feel oppressed by difficulties or I feel distressed by suffering, I find shelter in her.»

Yogananda said that the Hindu teacher, whose name is Sri Yukteswar, rarely read a book that was not sacred.[1]

For the Islam, the Koran is a book dictated by God. It shapes almost all the Islamic saying, thinking, and feeling. Its words appear in all the Muslim cultural expressions. Believing in the Koran is almost the first dogma of the Islam. The Koran is “Kalâm Allâh”, that is to say, the ‘word of God.’ Mahomet did not write it; he was just a receiver and transmitter.

The Koran is the element that founded the Islam. The entire Islamic religion has been conditioned by the phenomenon of the sacred book. The Koranic expression “Ahl al-kitâb”, that is to say, ‘a town that has a sacred book,’ impregnates all the Muslim spirituality. There is no Islam without Koran.


[1] Cf. YOGANANDA, P., Autobiography of a Yogi, p. 134.

Gumersindo Meiriño

***

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

Visista Advaita — Qualified Non-Dualism

By Br. John Martin Sahajananda

The second Hindu system we’re considering is called Visista Advaita, a system of qualified non-dualism, proposed by one, Ramanuja, in the 11th century after Jesus. He disagreed with Shankara’s position regarding the nature of God, the universe and humankind. For Ramanuja, as with Shankara, God (Brahman) alone is eternal (sathyam). But according to him, God is not nirguna, without qualities, but saguna, with qualities.

Ramanuja taught that God is personal. The universe and our world (jagat) is the manifestation of Brahman (not a mere appearance, mithya, as with Shankara). The universe isn’t created by God, but rather is seen as an emanation from God. God is the instrumental and the material cause of creation. We are part of God but not identical with God. There’s a subtle essential difference between God and us.

Ramanuja saw the universe and humankind as the ‘body’ of God. The relationship between God and the universe, he taught, is like soul and body, or the body and the hair that grows on and from the body. God and the universe are inseparable. The material world isn’t an illusion, mithya or maya. Maya, he teaches, is the creative power of God through which he manifests the world and everything in it.

If we go back to the analogy of water and ice, Brahman, according to this system, is water; ice is the universe. The universe isn’t an illusion. It’s the manifestation of Brahman. It’s the body of Brahman. But there’s a subtle difference between God and the universe, which includes humankind — it isn’t identical with Brahman.

Ramanuja also proposed the way of devotion, bhakthi marga. One has to surrender to God, he taught, through devotion or faith — to God’s will — and one finds peace and joy in this surrender. There’s no human soul identifying with God. No one can say, ‘God and I are one.’

For him, a personal relationship with God is very important. If a human soul was one with God, then no personal relationship is possible — it takes two to tango! He taught that we can have a personal relationship with God in one or more modes such as: father and child, lover and beloved, protector and protected, physician and patient, owner and the owned, sustainer and sustained, supporter and dependent, sun and lotus etc.

Ultimate liberation, Ramanuja taught, happens only after the death of the physical body. In general he is considered to be a pantheist. But this may not be correct since he holds that there’s a subtle essential difference between God and the universe in general or humankind in particular. From the Sun come many rays, but one cannot say that every ray is a Sun. There is only one Sun and the universe is its manifestation.

Br. John Martin Sahajananda

 

Continued next week

 

.

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

The closeness of God: The Sun

Many people get bothered when God is close, because he makes them think about their ways of life. They do not like it because it makes them remember the dark parts of their ways. And they do not want to change; they do not want to be touched.

This happened to hypocrites and Pharisees who considered Jesus an enemy. This is what Jesus teaches now. You cannot be a person who only carries out the law and pretends to be a good person so that people say: “What a good man! How law abiding! How generous!” Jesus sees inside your heart and unmasks double-faced people. He does it for two reasons. Firstly, to help them because when he unmasks them he is living them a second chance. And secondly, in order not to let them deceive innocent people.

Nevertheless, many of them did not accept the word of God and did not bear him. They tried, by all means, to get rid of him. This also happens nowadays; many people have an appearance, show a kind face, but they are exactly the opposite. They are like actors who do not live their own lives; they live a pretended life they have invented, in which they are no more protagonists of a film. This is far from reality. The word of Jesus places you in your real life, and when you accept reality you see what you are, with no slyness or tricks; so Jesus helps you to start over.

This happens now and also happened two thousand years ago. Genuine people approached him despite the fact that they had sinned. His previous behavior and his way of life did not care. Thanks to Jesus they were reborn. They did not disown his presence; they invited him and shared with him instead. Zaqueo, who was a tax collector and a robber, admitted it before Jesus. He received Jesus in his house and his life changed radically. Mathew, another tax collector who kept other people’s money, invited him to eat and then became an apostle…

It is like the light of the sun. When entering a half-lighted room, we may say: «How clean this room is!» But when we open the windows and light enters, we see dirtiness, spider webs. In the presence of God, the sun shines. The darkness disappears. But if somebody wants to hide the dark part of his life get away from the light of God because nothing can be hidden from him.

In the Gospel, Jesus cured a man that was possessed by many demons, and then he sent the demons to a herd of swine. The evangelist says: «So people pleaded so that he moved away from them because they feared.» The inhabitants did not rejoice in Jesus’ miracle. They did not feel touched or happy when seeing his neighbor cured from the curse. They only cared about their economic loss, the loss of the herd of swine. On the contrary, the man from whom the demons had come out begged to remain with him (…) The man went off and proclaimed throughout the whole town what Jesus had done for him.»[1]

Demons and double-faced people cannot bear the Word of God. Many hypocrites read the Gospel to hide their malice. «They have eyes, but they do not see, ears, but they do not hear.» They have no root.


[1] Cf. Lc 8, 27-40.

Theology Articles

Gumersindo Meiriño

***

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

Visista Advaita, Qualified Non-Dualism

The second Hindu system we’re considering is called Visista Advaita, a system of qualified non-dualism, proposed by one, Ramanuja, in the 11th century after Jesus. He disagreed with Shankara’s position regarding the nature of God, the universe and humankind. For Ramanuja, as with Shankara, God (Brahman) alone is eternal (sathyam). But according to him, God is not nirguna, without qualities, but saguna, with qualities.

Ramanuja taught that God is personal. The universe and our world (jagat) is the manifestation of Brahman (not a mere appearance, mithya, as with Shankara). The universe isn’t created by God, but rather is seen as an emanation from God. God is the instrumental and the material cause of creation. We are part of God but not identical with God. There’s a subtle essential difference between God and us.

Ramanuja saw the universe and humankind as the ‘body’ of God. The relationship between God and the universe, he taught, is like soul and body, or the body and the hair that grows on and from the body. God and the universe are inseparable. The material world isn’t an illusion, mithya or maya. Maya, he teaches, is the creative power of God through which he manifests the world and everything in it.

If we go back to the analogy of water and ice, Brahman, according to this system, is water; ice is the universe. The universe isn’t an illusion. It’s the manifestation of Brahman. It’s the body of Brahman. But there’s a subtle difference between God and the universe, which includes humankind — it isn’t identical with Brahman.

Ramanuja also proposed the way of devotion, bhakthi marga. One has to surrender to God, he taught, through devotion or faith — to God’s will — and one finds peace and joy in this surrender. There’s no human soul identifying with God. No one can say, ‘God and I are one.’

For him, a personal relationship with God is very important. If a human soul was one with God, then no personal relationship is possible — it takes two to tango! He taught that we can have a personal relationship with God in one or more modes such as: father and child, lover and beloved, protector and protected, physician and patient, owner and the owned, sustainer and sustained, supporter and dependent, sun and lotus etc.

Ultimate liberation, Ramanuja taught, happens only after the death of the physical body. In general he is considered to be a pantheist. But this may not be correct since he holds that there’s a subtle essential difference between God and the universe in general or humankind in particular. From the Sun come many rays, but one cannot say that every ray is a Sun. There is only one Sun and the universe is its manifestation.

John Martin Sahajananda

Continued next week

.

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

From the tunnel to the clouds

One day, a good man was introduced to me. He was intelligent and had great qualities. The person who introduced him told me: «He is a great man with a great problem: he lives in the túnel of the past, or in the clouds of what is about to come. Now, he needs to step on the present.»

I have met many people like that man: they seem to live anchored in the old year or dreaming about the new year. Remember the great celebrations to say goodbye to the old year and welcome the new year in every part of the world! However, the old year is each night when we go to sleep and dream with the angels: it is the end of the world, of our conscience. At the same time, each sunrise is a new year that God offers us: we revive the conscience, we come back to life.

How many times do we dawn looking back? The things I have done, the things others have done to me, the things I could have done. All this is finished: «the past is over.» Each awakening is an opportunity. In our dreams, we recover enough energy to wake up again, as new born. We learn from the past the things we do not have to do again. We prepare the tomorrow living the present with more intensity.

Adolfo confessed: «I do not understand the meaning of this phrase: “No one who sets a hand to the plow and looks to what was left behind is fit for the kingdom of God”[1] I asked it to many priests, but I did not like their answers.» Escalada replied: «I was seeing the photographs of my childhood and youth. I recalled my relationship with people, whom I believed my friends. I could not see myself reflected in that world, in those past years. So, I started to tear the photographs of my childhood. I only kept some of them.»

Chose the present! “Here and now” are the happiest moments of your existence. If you want to recall something, look in your mind for the positive things. In the Old Testament, a town was asked to recall the acts of the Lord. Recall what makes you walk, not what paralyzes you!

I suggest a prayer called “Memorare.”[2] It was written by Claraval and it is prayed in order to ask the Mother of God to remember us, to recall the gifts she always distributes among her children.


[1] Lk 9, 62.

[2] Remember, Oh pious Virgin Mary! It has never been heard that any of those who have turned to your protection, asking for your help have been abandoned. Due to the fact that I trust you, I turn to you, oh Mother, Virgin of the virgins, groaning because of the weight of my sins I dare to appear before you. Oh mother of God, do not reject my plea before listening to them. Accept them mildly. Amen.

 Theology Articles

Gumersindo Meiriño

***

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

Advaita – Non-Duality

The first Hindu philosophical system we shall consider is called Adviata, a system of non-duality proposed by Shankara in the 8th century after Jesus. According to Shankara, God (Brahman) alone is eternal (sathyam). The universe (Jagat), he taught, has only the appearance of reality. The illusory nature of the manifest world, in this system, is also known by the more often used word: maya.

Ultimately, the human soul (jivatman), he taught, is identical with God (Brahman). This can be explained with the analogy of water (representing God) and ice (representing us). Ice, as we know, comes from water and melts back to water. It could be said, that a block of ice doesn’t have an existence independent of water. Also, the block of ice always has a beginning and an end — it comes and goes, as we see with glaciers or icebergs.

The iceberg (or ice cube in your drink) is essentially one with the water in which it floats, though it is functionally different. The ice doesn’t become water. It is water. But it isn’t aware that it’s water. Because it’s solid, it imagines, let us say, that it’s an object like a stone. If this were the case, we could say it was in a state of ignorance. It would then need to free itself from this ignorance and realize that it is essentially water … or God.

Shankara proposed a way of wisdom known as jnana marga. The paths of devotion, bhakthi and action, karma can prepare the way, but jnana is the ultimate in his view. Shankara taught that ignorance can be removed only through wisdom or understanding and not by devotion or action, as they’re not the opposite of ignorance.

For Shankara also, God or Brahman is nirguna, without qualities. Brahman is impersonal. Human beings are essentially one with God, but they’re ignorant of this truth. They need to awaken out of ignorance and realize the liberating truth about themselves. According to him, ultimately every one of us can say ahambrahmaasmi, ‘I am Brahman, God and I are one.’ A person who realizes this truth while alive is called jivan muktha — liberated while alive.

In general, Shankara is considered to be a monist, but a better description would be that he’s a non-dualist: God and the universe, he taught, are not two independent or separate realities.

John Martin Sahajananda

Continued next week

.

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:


Read Full Post »

With a clean glance

 
The Lord turned and looked straight at Peter. Then Peter remembered the word the Lord had  spoken to him (Luke 22, 61)

I remember having moved to live in a new house, far from my land. I have been received affectionately. People showed me my room, and then I moved through the different places. There was a porch next to the house. I took several walks admiring the rich vegetation. In a strayed corner, a plant had grown. It was big and had some beautiful rosaceous violet flowers.

At lunch, I was asked about my first impressions. I commented on how nice this plant was. One of the diners answered that he had been there for thirty years, and he did not remember having seen that plant. I tried to describe him where it was, what color the flowers were… but he could not distinguish which flowers had captured my attention.

When we finished lunch, we went for a walk around the porch to see the mysterious plant.

— Oh! Yes, it was grown there, but it’s common in these soils. I have not even realized that it was there— the host said. He had walked past it a hundred times, but he had never seen it.

This is what you and I do when we take the Gospel with that easy and arrogant attitude: «Well, I know what it says. I’ve heard about Jesus’s life; there’s nothing new to learn. I’m going to read another book to learn something different and new.»

That friend continued seeing more things. Then, he noted there were many birds, butterflies, and much smell of flowers in the porch… They had always been there, but he had never realized. He had got used to it; and his eyes were blurred by the black carpet of his routine.

Cleaning your glance is an essential condition to understand the Word of God. Otherwise, you would not be able to see what God has prepared for you. Purify your eyes with the collyrium of faith. Humbly ask Jesus what the blind that approached him in the Gospel asked: «Lord, make him see».

To empty the content

Josecito visits me every day, at least some minutes to say hello. Now he is one year old and he walks. As all children, he frequently falls down; but it is wonderful to see how he stands up. It takes him some minutes. We always observe him because it seems that he will not be able to do it; however, little by little and with a bit of suspense, he stands upright, after a number of strange poses. His grandparents cheer him and say:  «Very well, very well!»

As well as adults observe the progresses of the children, their falls, their “foolishness,” Father God observes us. He sees our struggle to walk straight, our falls, and our first steps.

In order to understand the Gospel, it is necessary that we become children again. The child has nothing; he is empty. He is born “clean,” and he learns everything he receives. He needs to be taught even the more basic things. If nobody taught him to speak, he would never learn; if nobody taught him to walk, he would never be able to do it.

Become a child again! Empty your worries and prejudices. Forget that you can read and write, remain empty, “clean,” as new born babies because whoever does not accept the kingdom of God like a child will not enter it.[1]

I invite you to throw away all the things you know about the Gospel, all your knowledge about Jesus’s life. Forget everything because you are a new born baby who is eager to learn; you are a baby who cannot walk or speak. Now open the Gospel with this attitude, as if it were the first time.

Nothing can be put into a full vessel. First you have to empty it and then you will be able to put something inside. As Jesus used to say: «Rather, new wine must be poured into fresh wineskins.»[2]

Saint Augustine of Hippo used to say:

To fill a vessel, it first has to be emptied. Shed the evil from you because you are going to be filled with the good. Suppose that God whishes to fill you with honey; if you are full of vinegar, where will you put the honey? The vessel must first be emptied, and then cleansed and freed from the vinegar. This requires hard work and is painful, but it is the only way to prepare it to receive something. And as we say honey, we could have said gold or wine; the fact is that we try to dignify the ineffable: God… enlarge our hearts so that he fills it when he comes.[3]

Now think what is there, inside your heart; examine what is in your mind, and recognize your acts. Throw everything away so that you can be filled with the Word of Jesus.

Reading the Gospel with new eyes means buying the collyrium that will help us to see. Look, observe, think, analyze and learn with that collyrium.

Leave your habits and prejudices away, because now you have the Gospel in your hands for the first time, and you are about to open your eyes to a new reality: the life of Jesus.

Exercise

Reflect: What do you think about along the day? Who is in your mind for more time? What objects do you love the most? How do you spend your time…?

Write it down in your workbook.

Read carefully a chapter of the Gospel each day, and write down the thoughts that come to your mind after reading.


[1] Cf. Lk 18, 16.

[2] Lk 5, 38.

[3] SAINT AUGUSTINE, Treaty on the first letter of Saint John, n.4

Taken from the book: G. MEIRIÑO, Reading the Gospel with new eyes, Corrientes, 2009, pp. 25-31

Theology Articles

Gumersindo Meiriño

 ***

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

To empty the content

Josecito visits me every day, at least some minutes to say hello. Now he is one year old and he walks. As all children, he frequently falls down; but it is wonderful to see how he stands up. It takes him some minutes. We always observe him because it seems that he will not be able to do it; however, little by little and with a bit of suspense, he stands upright, after a number of strange poses. His grandparents cheer him and say:  «Very well, very well!»

As well as adults observe the progresses of the children, their falls, their “foolishness,” Father God observes us. He sees our struggle to walk straight, our falls, and our first steps.

In order to understand the Gospel, it is necessary that we become children again. The child has nothing; he is empty. He is born “clean,” and he learns everything he receives. He needs to be taught even the more basic things. If nobody taught him to speak, he would never learn; if nobody taught him to walk, he would never be able to do it.

Become a child again! Empty your worries and prejudices. Forget that you can read and write, remain empty, “clean,” as new born babies because whoever does not accept the kingdom of God like a child will not enter it.[1]

I invite you to throw away all the things you know about the Gospel, all your knowledge about Jesus’s life. Forget everything because you are a new born baby who is eager to learn; you are a baby who cannot walk or speak. Now open the Gospel with this attitude, as if it were the first time.

Nothing can be put into a full vessel. First you have to empty it and then you will be able to put something inside. As Jesus used to say: «Rather, new wine must be poured into fresh wineskins.»[2]

Saint Augustine of Hippo used to say:

To fill a vessel, it first has to be emptied. Shed the evil from you because you are going to be filled with the good. Suppose that God whishes to fill you with honey; if you are full of vinegar, where will you put the honey? The vessel must first be emptied, and then cleansed and freed from the vinegar. This requires hard work and is painful, but it is the only way to prepare it to receive something. And as we say honey, we could have said gold or wine; the fact is that we try to dignify the ineffable: God… enlarge our hearts so that he fills it when he comes.[3]

Now think what is there, inside your heart; examine what is in your mind, and recognize your acts. Throw everything away so that you can be filled with the Word of Jesus.

Reading the Gospel with new eyes means buying the collyrium that will help us to see. Look, observe, think, analyze and learn with that collyrium.

Leave your habits and prejudices away, because now you have the Gospel in your hands for the first time, and you are about to open your eyes to a new reality: the life of Jesus.

Exercise

Reflect: What do you think about along the day? Who is in your mind for more time? What objects do you love the most? How do you spend your time…?

Write it down in your workbook.

Read carefully a chapter of the Gospel each day, and write down the thoughts that come to your mind after reading.


[1] Cf. Lk 18, 16.

[2] Lk 5, 38.

[3] SAINT AUGUSTINE, Treaty on the first letter of Saint John, n.4

Theology Articles

Gumersindo Meiriño

***

Gracias por su visita

Para volver a la página de inicio haga clik en la siguiente imagen:

Read Full Post »

« Newer Posts - Older Posts »

A %d blogueros les gusta esto: